Pratique des Animaux Sauvage et Exotiques



Cas cliniques

Néphroblastome chez un lapin de compagnie (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (Palmero Audrey et Zachée Quentin)

  1. Atasever A, Beyaz L, Deniz K : A case of triphasic nephroblastoma with lung metastases in an angora rabbit, Revue Méd. Vét. 2007, 158, 6, 303-308.
  2. Boucher et al. Spontaneous nephroblastoma (kidney tumour) in a breeding rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). World rabbit Science, 1997, 5(1), 1-2.
  3. Carlton WW, Dietz JM : Two Renal Tumors in Cottontail Rabbits (SylvilagusJloridanus), Vet Pathol.14 : 29-35, 1977.
  4. Carpenter JW : Exotic Animal Formulary, 5th Edition
  5. Chandra M, Riley MGI, Johnson DE. Spontaneous Renal Neoplasms in Rats, Journal of applied toxicology, 1993 ; Vol.13(2), 109-116.
  6. Cianciolo RE, Mohr FC. The urinary system. In : Maxie MG ed. Jubb Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA : Elsevier Saunders ; 2016 :446-447.
  7. Cooper TK, Griffith JW, et al. Spontaneous lung lesions in aging laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). VetPathol.2017 ;54(1) :178-187
  8. De Lorenzi D, Baroni M, Mandara MT. A true « triphasic » pattern : Thoracolumbar spinal tumor in a young dog. Vet Clin Pathol. 2007 ; 36 :200-203.
  9. Diezi M, Tercier S. Kidney tumours in children. Rev Med Switzerland. 2007 ; Vol.3,24-55.
  10. Doherty MM, Hughes PJ, Korszniak NV, et al. Prolongation of lidocaine-induces epidural anesthesia by medium molecular weight hyaluronic acid formulations : pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies in the rabbit. Anesth Analg 1995 ; 80(4) :740-6.
  11. Flecknell PA, Liles JH. Assessment of the analgesic action of opiod agonistantagonists in the rabbit. J Assoc Vet Anaesthetics 1990 ; 17 :24-9.
  12. Heatley JJ, Smith AN. Spontaneous neoplasms of lagomorphs. Veterinary Clinics of North America Exotic Animal Practice. 2004 ;7(3):561-77.
  13. Hassan J, Katic N, et al. Treatment of nephroblastoma with poly-cythemia by nephrectomy in a rabbit. Vet Rec. 2012 ; 170 :465
  14. Kubota M et al : Nephroblastoma with polycythemia in two rabbits, Japanese Journal of Veterinary Anesthesia & Surgery. 2006 ; 37 (1) 7-10.
  15. Leach MC, Allweiler S, Richardson C, et al. Behavioural effects of ovariohysterectomy and oral administration of meloxicam in laboratory housed rabbits. Res Vet Sci 2009 ; 87(2) : 336-47.
  16. Meuten DJ. Tumours of the urinary system. In : Meuten DJ, ed. Tumors in Domestic Animals. Ames, IA : Iowa State Press. 2002 :519-520.
  17. Newman SJ. The urinary system. In : McGavin MD, Zachary JF, ed.Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 5th ed. St Louis, MO : Elsevier Mosby; 2012: 643.
  18. Osamu Katsuta O et al. Spontaneous nephroblastoma with oncocytic differentiation in a Japanese White rabbit, J Toxicol Pathol. 2017 ; 30 : 169–175.
  19. Sabaterl M et al : Renal embryonal nephroma exhibiting malignant features in a Dutch rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, Vol 37, 18-21, 2021.
  20. Shafford HL, Schadt JC. Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of buprenorphine in conscious rabbits. Vet Anaesth Analg 2008 ; 35(4) :326-32.
  21. Turner PV, Chen HC, Taylor WM. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in rabbits after single and repeat oral dosing. Comp Med 2006 ; 56(1) :63-7.
  22. Yuichi M, Ryota A, Atsushi S et al. Effets of telmisartan on proteinuria and systolic blood pressure in dogs with chronic kidney disease. Research in veterinary science, 2020 ; 133 : 150-156.
  23. Zhi-Kui Wang, Zhen-Ying Liu, Hai-Bo. Protective effect of telmisartan on rats with renal failure and its mechanism. Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 2015 ; 8(6) : 498–5014981995-7645.

Balloon syndrome chez un hérisson d’Europe (Erinaceus europaeus) (Lucas Flenghi, Christophe Bulliot, Céline Levrier, Cécile Autruffe )

1- DOSS, G.A, CARPENTER, J.W., 2020.- African Pygmy Hedgehogs. Pp. 401-415  in : Ferrets, rabbits and rodents clinical medicine and surgery. Eds. Elsevier., Riverport Lain St Louis, Missouri.

2- MACINTOSH, H., 2021.- Subcutaneous Emphysema in a European Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) – a case study. Veterinary Nursing Journal., 36:91-95.

3- STOCKER, L., 2006.- Hedgehogs. Pp. 200-215 in :  Practical wildlife care. Eds. Blackwell., Garsington Rooad, Oxford.

4- BANTE, M., 2018.- Les Maladies du hérisson dominantes pathologiques et exemple de prise en charge thérapeutique. La dépêche technique.,162:26-20.

5- JEPSON, L., 2016.- Hedgehogs. Pp. 198-230 in : Exotic animal medicine. Eds. Elsevier., Riverport Lain St Louis, Missouri.

6- GORNATTI-CHURRIA, C.D, CRISPO, M, SHIVAPRASAD, H.L, et al., 2018.- Gangrenous dermatitis in chickens and turkeys. J Vet Diagn Invest.,30(2):188-196.

7- RICH, A.F, ZENDRI, F, COSTA T, Timofte D, et al., 2021.-  Nectarivorous Bird Emphysematous Ingluvitis (NBEI): A Novel Disease in Loriinae Birds Associated With Clostridium perfringens Infection. Front Vet Sci., 5(7):1-8.

8- BRYANT, P, CARAPETIS, J, MATUSSEK, J, et al., 2002.- Recurrent crepitant cellulitis caused by Clostridium perfringens. Pediatr Infect Dis J., 21(12):1173-4.

9- EMILY, KT, REBECCA, S.S., 2013.- Pneumomediastinum in cats: 45 cases (2000-2010). J Vet Emerg Crit Care.,23(4):429-35.

Phacoémulsification sur un lapin de compagnie (Florine Narinx, Sébastien Monclin, Marie Monchaux et Aurélie Sauvage)

  1. Cogan, D.G. and Donaldson, D.D. 1951. Experimental Radiation Cataracts. 1. Cataracts in the Rabbit Following Single X-Ray Exposure. AMA. Arch. Ophthalmol. 45, 508-522.
  2. Felchle, L.M. and Sigler, R.L. 2002. Phacoemulsification for the management of Encephalitozoon cuniculi-induced phacoclastic uveitis in a rabbit. Vet. Ophthalmol. 5, 211-215.
  3. Geeraets, W.J., Harrel, W., Guerry, D., Ham, W.T. and Mueller, H.A. 1965. Aging Anomalies and Radiation Effect of Rabbit Lens. Acta Ophthalmol. 43, 3-21.
  4. Gelatt, K.N. (2021). Veterinary ophthalmology. Hoboken, Nj: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  5. Gelatt, K.N. 1975. Congenital Cataracts in a Litter of Rabbits. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 167, 598-599.
  6. Gomes, F., Matos, R. and Ledbetter, E. 2018. Phacoemulsification of bilateral cataracts in two pet rabbits. Open Vet. J. 8, 125-130.
  7. Gwon, A. 2006. Lens regeneration in mammals: a review. Surv Ophthalmol. 51, 51-62.
  8. Keeble, E.J., Shaw, D.J. 2006. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in domestic rabbits in the United Kingdom. Vet. Rec. Open. 158, 539–544.
  9. Kim. J.H., Kim, H., Joo, C.K. 2005. The effect of capsular tension ring on posterior capsular opacity in cataract surgery. Korean J of Ophthalmol. 19, 23 – 28.
  10. Klein, H.E., Krohne, S.G., Moore, G.E. and Stiles, J. 2011. Postoperative complications and visual outcomes of phacoemulsification in 103 dogs (179 eyes): 2006–2008. Vet Ophthalmol. 14, 114-120.
  11. Künzel, F. and Joachim, A. 2002. Encephalitozoonosis in rabbits. Parasitol. Res. 106, 299–309.
  12. Munger, R.J., Langevin, N. and Podval, J. 2002. Spontaneous cataracts in laboratory rabbits. Vet. Ophthalmol. 5, 177-181.
  13. Nishi, O., Nishi, K. and Osakabe, Y. 2004. Effect of intraocular lenses on preventing posterior capsule opacification: Design versus material. J.Cataract Refract.Surg. 30, 2170-2176.
  14. Pascolini, D. and Mariotti, S.P. 2012. Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 614-618.
  15. Peng, X.W., Roshwalb, S., Cooper, T.K., Zimmerman, H. and Christensen, N.D. 2015. High incidence of spontaneous cataracts in aging laboratory rabbits of an inbred strain. Vet. Ophthalmol. 18, 186-190.
  16. Sanchez, R.F., Everson, R., Hedley, J., Dawson, C., Lam, R., Priestnall, S.L., Garcia de Carellan, A., de Miguel, C. and Seymour, C. 2018. Rabbits with naturally occurring cataracts referred for phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation: a preliminary study of 12 cases. Vet Ophthalmol. 21, 399-412.
  17. Waters, J.W. 1950. Biochemical and Clinical Changes in the Rabbit Lens during Alloxan Diabetes. Biochem. J. 46, 575-578.


Traitement de la cataracte en médecine zoologique. Alternative à la phacoémulsification. (Norin Chai)

  1. Barnes JA, Smith JS. Bilateral phacofragmentation in a New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri). J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 2004;35(1):110-112.
  2. Bouhanna L, Lécu A, Fauchier N. Cataracte unilatérale chez un singe hurleur (Alouatta caraya) : traitement chirurgical par phaco-emulsification, Pratique des animaux sauvages et exotiques, 2005, 5.2, 3-7.
  3. Brooks DE, Murphy CJ, Quesenberry KE, Walsh MT. Surgical correction of a luxated cataractous lens in a barred owl. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 1983;183(11):1298-1299.
  4. Chai, N., Bouhanna L., Bouts, T., Mace JP. 2012. Cataracte bilatérale chez un varan des steppes : traitement par phaco-émulsification. Le Point Vétérinaire. 2012. 322: 55 – 57.
  5. Cooley PL. Phacoemulsification in a clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). Vet. Ophthalmol. 2001;4(2):113-117.
  6. Dutton AG. Cataract extraction in a fur seal. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 1991;15;198(2):309-311.
  7. de Faber JT, Pameijer JH, Schaftenaar W. Cataract surgery with foldable intraocular lens implants in captive lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 2004;35(4):520-524.
  8. Eisenbarth J.M., Nelms S., Sim R.R. , Rivas A.E., Phacoemulsification for Cataract Management in Two Snakes. The Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery, Volume 31, No. 3, 2021 pp. 189–196
  9. Farnsworth PN, Burke PA, Wagner BJ et coll. Diabetic cataracts in the rhesus monkey lens. Metab. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. 1980;4(1):31-42.
  10. FRYE FL. Ophthalmic conditions. In: Reptile Care an Atlas of Diseases and Treatments , 2nd edn. (ed. Frye FL) T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, 1991; 329–344.
  11. Gilger BC. Phacoemulsification technology and fundamentals. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Animal Practice. 1997;27:1131-1141.
  12. Gionfriddo JR. Cataracts in New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicunas, and guanacos). Veterinary Clin. North Am. Exot. Anim. Pract. 2002;5(2):357-369.
  13. Kern TJ, Murphy CJ, Riis RC. Lens extraction by phacoemulsification in two raptors. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 1984;185(11):1403-1406.
  14. Gogate PMS. Comparaison de la chirurgie à petite incision manuelle et de la chirurgie extra capsulaire classique par un essai clinique. Revue de Santé Oculaire Communautaire, Volume 2, Numéro1. 2005 : 8 – 9
  15. MILLICHAMP NJ, JACOBSON ER, WOLF ED. Diseases of the eye and ocular adnexa in reptiles. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1983; 183 : 1205–1212.
  16. Ollivet F, Beltran W, Lécu A et coll. Ocular Findings in a colony of mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) from the Paris Zoo.Proceedings of the joint Conference of the AAZV, AAWV, ARAV, NAZWV, Orlando. 2001:148p.
  17. Plesker R, Hetzel U, Schmidt W. Cataracts in a laboratory colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). J. Med. Primatol. 2005;34(3):139-146.
  18. Schoon HA, Schoon D. Lenticular lesions in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina). J. Comp. Pathol. 1992;107(4):379-388.
  19. Rainwater K.L., Sykes J.M. and Sapienza, J.S. Retrospective investigation of cataract management in avian species in a zoologic collection. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 46(4): 858–869, 2015
  20. Seitz R, Weisse I. Operation on a congenital cataract in a Siberian Tiger Ophthalmologica. 1979;178(1-2):56-65. [Article en allemand]
  21. Stanley RG. Marsupial ophthalmology. Veterinary Clin. North Am. Exot. Anim. Pract. 2002;5(2):371-390, vii.

La nidovirose des boidés et des pythonidés (Lionel Schilliger)

1.- AFSCA, Agence fédérale pour la sécurité de la chaîne alimentaire. Les maladies animales émergentes. Brochure informative à l’attention des vétérinaires. Edition 2018, 32p. Disponible à : (consulté le 24.01.2021).

2.- Bodewes R, Lempp C, Schürch AC, Habierski A, Hahn K, Lamers M et al. Novel divergent nidovirus in a python with pneumonia. J Gen Virol. 2014; 95: 2480-2485.

3.- Dervas E, Hepojoki J, Laimbacher A, Romero-Palomo F,  Jelinek C, Keller S et al. Nidovirus-Associated Proliferative Pneumonia in the Green Tree Python (Morelia viridis). J. Virol. 2017; 91(21): 1-32. doi:10.1128/JVI.00718-17.

4.- Divers SJ. Pneumonia. In: Mader’s Reptile and Amphibian Medicine and Surgery. Divers SJ, Stahl SJ, editors. St Louis: Elsevier; 2019, pp 1331-1332.

5.- Hoon-Hanks LL, Layton ML, Ossiboff RJ, Parker JSL, Dubovi EJ, Steinglein MD. Respiratory disease in ball pythons (Python regius) experimentally infected with ball python nidovirus. Virology. 2018; 517:77-87.

6.- Hoon-Hanks LL, Ossiborf RJ, Bartolini P, Fogelson SB, Perry SM, Stöhr A et al. Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Sampling of Serpentovirus (Nidovirus) Infection in Captive Snakes Reveals High Prevalence, Persistent Infection, and Increased Mortality in Pythons and Divergent Serpentovirus Infection in Boas and Colubrids. Front Vet.Sci. 2019; 6:338. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00338.

7.- Hoon-Hanks LL, Stöhr AC, Anderson AJ, Evans DE, Nevarez JG, Díaz RE, et al. Serpentovirus (Nidovirus) and Orthoreovirus Coinfection in Captive Veiled Chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) with Respiratory Disease. Viruses. 2020; 12: 1329. doi:10.3390/v12111329.

8.- ICTV 2018 (International committee on taxonomy of viruses). Disponible à : (consulté le 18/01/2021).

9.- Knotek Z, Divers SJ. Pulmonology. In: Mader’s Reptile and Amphibian Medicine and Surgery. Divers SJ, Stahl SJ, editors. St Louis: Elsevier; 2019, pp 786-804.

10.- Marschang RE, Kolesnik E. Detection of nidoviruses in live pythons and boas. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere. 2017; 9;45(1): 22-26.

11.- Marschang RE, Origgi F, Stenglein ME, Hyndman TH, Wellehan JFX, Jacobson ER. Viruses and Viral Diseases of Reptiles. In: Infectious Diseases and Pathology of Reptiles. Jacobson ER, Garner MM, editors. Boca Raton: CRC Press;

12.- O’Dea MA, Jackson B, Jackson C, Xavier P, Warren K. Discovery and partial genomic characterisation of a novel nidovirus associated repiratory disease in wild Shingleback lizards (Tiliqua rugosa). PLoS ONE. 2016; 11(11): e0165209. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0165209.

13.- OIE. Maladies émergentes. Disponible à :émergente (consulté le 24.01.2021).

14.- OMS. Maladies émergentes. Disponible à : (consulté le 20.01.2021).

15.- Schilliger L. Les maladies émergentes en herpétologie. Bull. Acad. Vet. France 2021: 1-7. doi: 10.3406/bavf .2021.70934.

16.- Stenglein MD, Jacobson ER, Wozniak EJ, Wellehan JF, Kincaid A, Gordon M et al. Ball python nidovirus: a candidate etiologic agent for severe respiratory disease in Python regius. MBio 2014; 5: e01484–14. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01484–14.

16.- Uccellini L, Ossiboff RJ, de Matos RE, Morrisey JK, Petrosov A, Navarrete-Macias I et al. Identification of a novel nidovirus in an outbreak of fatal respiratory disease in ball pythons (Python regius). Virol J. 2014; 11: 144.

17.- Zhang J, Finlaison DS, Frost MJ, Gestier S, Gu X, Hall J et al. Identification of a novel nidovirus as a potential cause of large scale mortalities in the endangered Bellinger River snapping turtle (Myuchelys georgesi). Plos One. 2018; 13(10): e0205209. pone.0205209.

L’axolotl qui se prenait pour un cyclope. (Alexandra Dufay, Laura Dupont et Paul Raymond)

  1. Takami Y, Une Y. A retrospective study of diseases in Ambystoma mexicanum: a report of 97 cases. J Vet Med Sci. 2017;79(6):1068-1071.
  2. Martinho F, Heatley JJ. Amphibian mycobacteriosis. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2012;15(1):113–119.
  3. Del Valle JM, Eisthen HL. 2019. Treatment of chytridiomycosis in laboratory axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) and rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa). Comp Med. 2019;69(3):204–211.
  4. Baker BB, Meyer DN, Llaniguez JT et coll. Management of Multiple Protozoan Ectoparasites in a Research Colony of Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2019;58(4):479-484.
  5. Stacy BA, Parker JM. Amphibian oncology. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2004;7(3):673–695.

Chytridiomycose des Amphibiens

  1. Van Rooij P, Martel A, Haesebrouck F, et al. Amphibian chytridiomycosis: a review with focus on fungus-host interactions. Vet Res. 2015; 46: 137.
  2. Federal Register, vol. 81, No. 8; FR Doc. 2016-0075
  3. Baitchman EJ, Pessier AP. Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Amphibian Chytridiomycosis. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2013; 16(3): 669–685.
  4. Brannelly LA, Richards-Zawacki CL, Pessier AP. Clinical trials with itraconazole as a treatment for chytrid fungal infections in amphibians. Dis Aquat Org. 2012;101: 95–104.
  5. Rendle M, Tapley B, Perkins M, Bittencourt-Silva G, Gower DJ, Wilkinson M. Itraconazole treatment of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infection in captive caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) and the first case of Bd in a wild neotropical caecilian. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research. 2015; 3(4): 137-140.
  6. Brannelly LA, Skerratt LF, Berger L. Treatment trial of clinically ill corroboree frogs with chytridiomycosis with two triazole antifungals and electrolyte therapy. Vet Res Commun. 2015; 39(3):179-87.
  7. Martel A, Van Rooij P, Vercauteren G, et al. Developing a safe antifungal treatment protocol to eliminate Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from amphibians. Med Mycol. 2011; 49(2):143-149.
  8. Blooi M, Pasmans F, Rouffaer L, et al. 2015. Successful treatment of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans infections in salamanders requires synergy between voriconazole, polymyxin E and temperature. Sci Rep. 2015; 30(5): 11788
  9. Young S, Speare R, Berger L, Skerratt LF. 2012. Chloramphenicol with fluid and electrolyte therapy cures terminally ill green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) with chytridiomycosis. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 43(2): 330–337
  10. Bowerman J, Rombough C, Weinstock SR, et al. Terbinafine hydrochloride in ethanol effectively clears Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians. J Herpetol Med Surg 2010; 20(1): 24–8.
  11. Chatfield MWH, Richards-Zawacki CL. Elevated temperature as a treatment for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in captive frogs. Dis Aquat Organ. 2011; 94(3):235-8.
  12. Blooi M, Martel A, Haesebrouke F, et al. Treatment of urodelans based on temperature dependent infection dynamics of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. Sci Rep. 2015; 5:8037
  13. Churgin S.M., Raphael B.L., Pramuk J.B., Trupkiewicz J.G., West G.. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in aquatic caecilians (Typhlonectes natans): A series of cases from two institutions. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2013; 44: 1002–1009.
  14. Webb R, Mendez L, Berger L, et al. Additional disinfectants effective against the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Dis Aquatic Organ. 2007; 74: 13-16

Conservation du grand hamster en France (Fabrice Capber)

André Antoine, Brand Christelle & Capber Fabrice, 2014. Atlas de répartition des mammifères d’Alsace. Atlas de la Faune d’Alsace. Strasbourg. GEPMA. 739 p.

Capber Fabrice, 2011. Intra-peritoneal radio-transmitter implants in European Hamsters (Cricetus cricetus). In Monecke S. & Pévet P. (eds). From fundamental research to population management: refining conservation strategies for the European Hamster: 28-32. 18th Meeting of the International Hamster Workgroup, october 14-17. Strasbourg (France): 62 p.

Tissier Mathilde, Kletty Florian, Handrich Yves & Habold Caroline, 2017. Monocultural sowing mesocosms decreases the species richness of weeds and invertebrates and critically reduces the fitness oh the endangered European hamster. Oecologia 186(2): 589-599.

Tissier Mathilde, Handrich Yves, Dallongeville Odeline, Robin Jean-Patrice & Habold Caroline, 2017. Diets derived from maize monoculture cause maternal infanticides in the endangered European hamster due to a vitamin B3 deficiency. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 284: 1-8.

Virion Marie-Cécile, 2018. Plan National d’Actions en faveur du Hamster Commun (Cricetus cricetus) et de la biodiversité de la plaine 2019-2028. Direction Régionale de l’Environnement, de l’Aménagement et du Logement Grand Est. 130 p.