Pratique des Animaux Sauvage et Exotiques



Cas cliniques

Diagnostic et gestion d’un hydrometre chez une lapine de compagnie (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Kévin Schlax, Léda Di Bez Castro, Marie Mélin

  1. SAITO K, NAKANISHI M, AND HASEGAWA A, 2002.- Uterine Disorders Diagnosed by ventrotomy in 47 rabbits.  Vet. Med. Sci ; 64(6) : 495-497.
  2. HOBBS BA, PARKER RF, 1990.- Uterine torsion associated with either hydrometra or endometritis in two rabbits. Lab Anim Sci ; 40 : 535-536.
  3. MORRELL JM, 1989.- Hydrometra in the rabbit. Vet Rec ; 125 : 325.
  4. BRAY MV, GAERTNER DJ, BROWNSTEIN DG, MOODY KD, 1991.- Hydrometra in a New Zealand White rabbit. Lab Anim Sci ; 41 : 628-629.
  5. SEBESTENY A, 1972.- A case of torsion of the uterus in a rabbit.Lab Anim ; 6: 357-358.

Anorexie et abattement chez un cochon d’inde de 2 ans (Cavia porcellus). Palmero Audrey et Zachée Quentin

  1. Carpenter JW : Exotic Animal Formulary, 5th Edition
  2. Mackenzie Hallman R, Brandão J : Diagnostic Imaging of the Renal System in Exotic Companion Mammals, Vet Clin Exot Anim 23 (2020) 195–214
  3. Sadar M J et al : Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine after intravenous and oral transmucosal administration in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), Am J Vet Res, 2018 Mar;79(3):260-266
  4. Hawkins M G, et al: Composition and characteristics of urinary calculi from guinea pigs, Journal of the American veterinary Medical Association, January 15, 2009, Vol. 234, No 2, Pages 214-220.
  5. Parkinson B, et al: Urethral diverticulum and urolithiasis in a female guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, December 1, 2017, Vol. 251, No. 11, pages 1313-1317.
  6. JOLÁNKAI R et al : Urolithiasis in guinea pigs – nutritional aspects, Cereal Research Communications
  7. 34, No. 1, PROCEEDINGS OF THE V. ALPS-ADRIA SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP Opatija, Croatia, 6–11 March, 2006. Part II (2006), pp. 743-746 (4 pages)
  8. Rooney TA, et al : The association between bloodwork, signalment, and urolithiasis in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, Volume 38, July 2021, Pages 26-31
  9. Donnelly TM. Diseases of small rodents. In: Quesenberry KE, Carpenter JW, editors. Ferrets, rabbits and rodents: clinical medicine and surgery. 2nd edition. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2003. p. 299–315
  10. Pollock G :  Disorders of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems. In : Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. Third edition. 2012, Pages 46-61
  11. Reavill DR, Lennox AM :Disease Overview of the Urinary Tract in Exotic Companion Mammals and Tips on Clinical Management, Vet Clin Exot Anim 23 (2020) 169–193
  12. Parsons JL. Feeding pocket pets : Nutritional physiology of rodents and lagomorphs. Proceedings of the annual conference of the American association of Zoo Veterinarians. Atlanta, 2016
  13. Takeda T, Grollman A. Spontaneously occurring renal disease in the guinea pig. Am J Pathol 1970 ;60(1) :103–18
  14. Schoeb TR. Diseases of guinea pigs. PAT 707, Diseases of laboratory animals II, 1989. Available at: Accessed April 2005.
  15. Percy DH, Barthold SW. Guinea pig. In: Pathology of laboratory rodents and rabbits. Ames (IA) : Blackwell Publishing; 2001. p. 209–47
  16. Schmidt RE, Reavill DR. The pathology of common diseases in small exotic mammals. In : 2004 C.L. Davis ACVP Symposium Pathology of Non-Traditional Pets. 2004. p. 60–86
  17. Fisher P G :Exotic Mammal Renal Disease : Causes and Clinical Presentation, Vet Clin Exot Anim 9 (2006) 33–67.
  18. Gnemmi V, et al: Renal granulomatous nephritis : Histopathological point of view, Ann Pathol. 2021 Apr ;41(2) :166-175
  19. Wilczynska A, et al : Encephalitozoon cuniculiinfection in a guinea pig with granulomatous encephalitis, Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, Volume 35, October 2020, Pages 13-16
  20. Boot R, van Knapen F, Kruijt BC, et al. Serological evidence for Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection (nosemiasis) in gnotobiotic guinea pigs. Lab Anim (NY) 1988 ;22:337–42
  21. Steblay RW, Rudofsky U, Spontaneous renal lesions and glomerular deposits of IgG and complement in guinea pigs, the Journal of Immunology, 1971 – Am Assoc Immnol
  22. Zoller G, Hahn H : Technological Advances in Diagnostic Imaging in Exotic Pet Medicine, Vet Clin Exot Anim 22 (2019) 397–417
  23. Praga M, Gonzalez Ester : Acute interstitial nephritis, Kidney international (2010), 77, 956-961
  24. Hadded S et al, Etiologies and prognostic factors of acute interstitial nephritis, Nephrol Ther, 2021, Apr ; 17(2) :114-119

Discussion de deux cas de dilatation/torsion d’estomac chez le cochon d’Inde (Cavia porcellus). Nathalie Lemmens

1.Acute gastric dilatation associated with gastric volvulus in the guinea pig. Lee KJ, Johnson WD, Lang CM.Lab Anim Sci. 1977 Oct;27(5 Pt 1):685-6.PMID: 597385

2.Review of gastric torsion in eight guinea pigs. Anna Nogradi; Iain Cope; marton Balogh.  Acta veterinaria hungarica 65 (4) pp 487-499 2017

3.Gastric volvulus in guinea pigs : comparaison with other species. Emily Dudley and Gragory Boivin.   J of Am Ass for Lab An Sc Vol 50 50, 4, July 2011 526-530

4.Gastrointestinal disease in exotic small mammals. Minh Huynh, Charly Pignon   J of exotic pet medicine 22 (2013) 118-131

5.Gastric Dilatation volvulus in a guinea pig. Mitchell; M. Hawkins; P. Gaffney; A. Macleod J. Am Hos Assoc 2010; 46: 174-180

6.Gastric dilatation and volvulus in guinea pig: a retrospective study. Charly Pignon.   Congrès Icare 2017 Venise

7.Le volvulus gastrique idiopathique aïgu. Pan Afr Med J. 2013 ;14 :31  Mouhsine A., Anzaoui J., Bouchentouf R.

Épizootie de goitres chez des cichlidés du lac Tanganyika. Jérôme Blanc

  1. Crow G.L., (2004). Goiter in Elasmobranchs. The Elasmobranch Husbandry Manual, Ohio Biological Survey, Inc.
  2. Noga, E.J., (2010). Fish disease: diagnosis and treatment. 2nd ed. Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell.
  3. Wildgoose WH. (2001) BSAVA manual of ornamental fish, ed 2, Gloucester, British Small Animal Veterinary Association
  4. Wolf J.C, Ginn P.E. and Francis-Floyd R., (1998), Goitre in a colony of African cichlids, Journal of fish disease, 21.
  5. Blanc, J. (2018). Médecine des poissons d’aquarium et place du vétérinaire dans son développement en France. Thèse de doctorat en médecine vétérinaire, Faculté de médecine Paul Sabatier, 193p.


L’appendicite du lapin de compagnie (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Etat des lieux des connaissances et des recommandations actuelles. Mathilde Charrasse et Minh Huynh

1.Smith HF, Fisher RE, Everett ML, Thomas AD, Bollinger RR, Parker W. Comparative anatomy and phylogenetic distribution of the mammalian cecal appendix. J Evol Biol. oct 2009;22(10):198499.

2.Snipes RL. Anatomy of the rabbit cecum. Anat Embryol (Berl). 5 déc 1978;155(1):5780.

3.Quesenberry K, Mans C, Orcutt C, Carpenter JW. Ferrets, rabbits, and rodents: clinical medicine and surgery – Chapter 11 Basic Anatomy, Physiology, and Husbandry of Rabbits. 4e éd. Philadelphia: Elsevier, Inc; 2020.

4.Lelkes L, Chang CL. Microbial dysbiosis in rabbit mucoid enteropathy. Lab Anim Sci. déc 1987;37(6):757‑64.

5.Di Girolamo N, Petrini D, Szabo Z, Volait-Rosset L, Oglesbee BL, Nardini G, et al. Clinical, surgical, and pathological findings in client-owned rabbits with histologically confirmed appendicitis: 19 cases (2015-2019). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1 janv 2022;112.

6.Davies RR, Davies JAER. Rabbit gastrointestinal physiology. Vet Clin Exot Anim Pract. 1 janv 2003;6(1):13953.

7.Carabaño R, Fraga MJ, Santoma G, de Blas JC. Effect of diet on composition of cecal contents and on excretion and composition of soft and hard feces of rabbits. J Anim Sci. avr 1988;66(4):90110.

8.Williams JA, Griffen WO, Sharma A, Wangensteen OH. Composition and source of secretion from lymphoid aggregations in the rabbit gut. Br J Exp Pathol. avr 1961;42:1537.

9.Straw E. Bacteria of rabbit gut and their role in the health of rabbit. Appl Rabbit Res. 1988;3:14250.

10.Forsythe SJ, Parker DS. Nitrogen metabolism by the microbial flora of the rabbit caecum. J Appl Bacteriol. avr 1985;58(4):3639.

11.Longo M, Thierry F, Eatwell K, Schwarz T, Del Pozo J, Richardson J. Ultrasound and computed tomography of sacculitis and appendicitis in a rabbit. Vet Radiol Ultrasound Off J Am Coll Vet Radiol Int Vet Radiol Assoc. sept 2018;59(5):E5660.

12.Jekl V, Piskovska A, Drnkova I, Skoric M, Hauptman K, Chloupek J. Case Report: Spontaneous Appendicitis With Suspected Involvement of Klebsiella variicola in Two Pet Rabbits. Front Vet Sci. 2021;8:779517.

13.Ishikawa M, Maeda H, Kondo H, Shibuya H, Onuma M, Sato T. A Case of Lymphoma Developing in the Rabbit Cecum. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69(11):11835.

14.Terasawa T, Blackmore CC, Bent S, Kohlwes RJ. Systematic review: computed tomography and ultrasonography to detect acute appendicitis in adults and adolescents. Ann Intern Med. 5 oct 2004;141(7):53746.

15.Bhangu A, Søreide K, Di Saverio S, Assarsson JH, Drake FT. Acute appendicitis: modern understanding of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Lancet Lond Engl. 26 sept 2015;386(10000):127887.

16.Nicoletti A, Di Girolamo N, Zeyen U, Selleri P, Masi M, Fonti P. Ultrasound morphology of cecal appendix in pet rabbits. J Ultrasound. déc 2018;21(4):28791.

17.Pieper R, Kager L, Tidefeldt U. Obstruction of appendix vermiformis causing acute appendicitis. An experimental study in the rabbit. Acta Chir Scand. 1982;148(1):6372.

18.Fujiwara H, Uchida K, Takahashi M. [Occurrence of granulomatous appendicitis in rabbits]. Jikken Dobutsu. juill 1987;36(3):27780.

19.Nunes FC, Silva AL da. [Acute ischaemic appendicitis in rabbits: new model with histopathological study]. Acta Cir Bras. oct 2005;20(5):399‑404.

20.Német Z, Szenci O, Horváth A, Makrai L, Kis T, Tóth B, et al. Outbreak of Klebsiella oxytoca enterocolitis on a rabbit farm in Hungary. Vet Rec. 5 mars 2011;168(9):243.

21.Coletti M, Passamonti F, Del Rossi E, Franciosini MP, Setta B. Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in Italian rabbits. Vet Rec. 17 nov 2001;149(20):6267.

22.Fisher P, Graham J. Chapter 10 – Rabbits. In: Carpenter JW, Marion CJ, éditeurs. Exotic Animal Formulary (Fifth Edition) [Internet]. W.B. Saunders; 2018 [cité 4 janv 2022]. p. 494‑531. Disponible sur:

23.Şimşek G, Sevinç B, Ünlü Y, Hasırcı İ, Kurku H, Karahan Ö. Effect of medical treatment on histological findings in rabbits with acute appendicitis. Ulus Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Derg Turk J Trauma Emerg Surg TJTES. nov 2016;22(6):516‑20.

24.Souza LC de, Ortega MR, Achar E, Simionato Netto D, Ribeiro Junior MAF. Application of high frequency bipolar electrocoagulation LigaSureTM in appendix vermiformis of rabbits with or without acute inflammatory process. Acta Cir Bras. mai 2012;27(5):322‑9.

25.Gidenne T, Lebas F. Le comportement alimentaire du lapin. 11e Journ Rech Cunic Partis Nov 2005. février 2015;184‑96.

Gestion du VSBV-1 en parc zoologique. Karl Mercera et Denis Michaux

1.Amarasinghe GK, Ayllón MA, Bào Y, Basler CF, Bavari S, Blasdell KR, et al. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2019. Arch Virol. 2019;164:196780.

2.Kuhn JH, Dürrwald R, Bào Y, Briese T, Carbone K, Clawson AN, et al. Taxonomic reorganization of the family Bornaviridae. Arch Virol. 2015;160:62132.

3.Briese T, Schneemann A, Lewis AJ, Park YS, Kim S, Ludwig H, et al. Genomic organization of Borna disease virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1994;91:43626.

4.Hoffmann B, Tappe D, Höper D, Herden C, Boldt A, Mawrin C, et al. A Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus Associated with Fatal Human Encephalitis. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:15462.

5.Schlottau K, Hoffmann B, Homeier-Bachmann T, Fast C, Ulrich RG, Beer M, et al. Multiple detection of zoonotic variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 RNA in different squirrel species suggests a possible unknown origin for the virus. Arch Virol. 2017;162:274754.

6.Schlottau K, Jenckel M, van den Brand J, Fast C, Herden C, Höper D, et al. Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1 in Squirrels, Germany and the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23:47781.

7.Petzold J, van den Brand JMA, Nobach D, Hoffmann B, Hoffmann D, Fast C, et al. Distribution of zoonotic variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 in naturally infected variegated and Prevost’s squirrels. Sci Rep. 2019;9.

8.Cadar D, Allendorf V, Schulze V, Ulrich RG, Schlottau K, Ebinger A, et al. Introduction and spread of variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 (VSBV-1) between exotic squirrels and spill-over infections to humans in Germany. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2021;10:60211.

9.Eisermann P, Rubbenstroth D, Cadar D, Thomé-Bolduan C, Eggert P, Schlaphof A, et al. Active Case Finding of Current Bornavirus Infections in Human Encephalitis Cases of Unknown Etiology, Germany, 2018–2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2021;27:13719.

10.Tappe D, Schlottau K, Cadar D, Hoffmann B, Balke L, Bewig B, et al. Occupation-Associated Fatal Limbic Encephalitis Caused by Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1, Germany, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24:97887.

11.Tappe D, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Rauch J, Allartz P, Herden C. Immunopathology of Fatal Human Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1 Encephalitis, Germany, 2011–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25:105865.

12.Tappe D, Frank C, Homeier-Bachmann T, Wilking H, Allendorf V, Schlottau K, et al. Analysis of exotic squirrel trade and detection of human infections with variegated squirrel bornavirus 1, Germany, 2005 to 2018. Eurosurveillance. 2019;24.